Organic fertilizers and the importance it provides to serve the agricultural soil by improving its quality, increasing its production and how to benefit from it to the maximum extent possible, and what distinguishes organic fertilizers from chemical ones?
The concept of organic fertilizer and its composition
The idea of utilizing and storing organic materials to serve agricultural soils began in 1921 AD, through an English company. Here we are talking about the modern method only, because the use of natural organic fertilizer has been known since time immemorial in ancient civilizations. Organic fertilizer is a pure natural material made from the remains of living organisms and animal waste. It breaks down the nutrients and transforms them into a mineral form that the soil can benefit directly from and is easily absorbed by plants. This is one of the differences between natural organic fertilizers and chemical fertilizers that supply the plant with minerals directly.
His idea is to allow the bacteria to break the bonds between the elements and then die after doing their job. Fertilizer is dried before use. Organic fertilizers contain several important and beneficial elements for the soil, such as:
Organic compost is prepared from the remains of bones and blood, as well as animal manure (“cow, poultry and goat manure”). Plant residues are also included in its ingredients because they contain important mineral elements. And also seaweed, which contains a decent amount of amino acids. Among the most important sources of organic matter in general are the following:
Plant leaves, stems, and plant roots.
Crop residues and sewage (but the use of sewage is restricted, as it results in the accumulation of toxic heavy metals and the transmission of infectious diseases).
remains of living organisms.
Make soil microbes a useful factor to perform some tasks and then get rid of them.
Reducing the use of “chemical fertilizers” that cause harm to the environment.
Improving the quality and quality of the soil by dismantling its elements, aerating it properly and reformulating its components.
Solving the problems of sandy soil in the difficulty of retaining water and making the soil more cohesive.
Saturate the soil with the nutrients it needs.
The process of decomposing organic matter results in the production of certain acids, which help dissolve nutrients and make them more absorbable by plants.
Solving calcareous soil problems and improving its properties.
Build the soil well and balance the degree of moisture in it.
The decomposition of organic matter results in large numbers of antibiotics and vitamins, which help in the growth of plants and protect them from harmful fungi and bacteria.
Organic fertilizer expels toxic substances from the soil, and makes plant roots more resistant to the inability to absorb these substances.
Types of compost
It consists of manure and excrement of livestock and animals. The amount of manure compounded in manure varies according to several considerations such as the age and type of animal, as well as the type of fodder on which it is fed. Municipal organic fertilizer is one of the oldest types that the old farmer relied on to provide his land with the necessary elements.
The idea of this method is to grow some crops and then turn them over and mix them with the soil. Leguminous crops are used for green fertilization, such as: peanuts, lupine and alfalfa. Where these plants contain a sufficient proportion of nitrogen and carbohydrates.
It is a fertilizer produced from horse stables, where rice straw is used as a renewable mattress on a daily basis for the health of horses, for collecting their waste, and for heating.
Poultry fertilizers are highly effective, but they must be handled with caution and in certain ways, so as not to lead to environmental pollution, the spread of diseases and unpleasant odors.
Natural organic fertilizer
It is a mixture of animal and plant waste in varying proportions. Where the waste is composted in a layered system, with openings made for ventilation, and some natural elements such as (phosphate rock and sulfur) can be added. It is better not to use mineral elements with natural organic fertilizer.
Industrial organic fertilizer
It consists of plant residues that are composted together in the form of layers, with a good ventilation system. Specific amounts of mineral elements are added between its layers.
In this method, the garbage is sorted and the inorganic materials are removed from it, and then the organic materials are fermented through the aerobic, anaerobic, or mixed fermentation system.
It is the mixture remaining after gas production, and it is a suspended solution, and it is spread on the surface of the earth immediately before the plowing process. The biogas fertilizer consists of a solid part and a liquid part, which can be separated by a sedimentation process. The resulting sedimentation can be used as an organic fertilizer after drying it by spreading in agricultural soil, while the liquid part is used with irrigation water.
Mother in law
In the wastewater purification process, the solids are separated in sedimentation basins and then dried, mixed with fine lime and left to dry for up to 3 months, then packaged and used for composting.
How to use
Organic fertilizers are used in an amount of 4-8 tons per acre. The fertilizer is spread manually or using spraying equipment, mixed with soil contents, and is not left exposed to sunlight, in the case of vegetable crops or “field crops”. In the case of fruit crops, it is spread on the surface of the soil and then plowed to reduce the process of nitrogen loss resulting from the decomposition of organic matter. The method of spreading organic fertilizers around the plants and then plowing them with the agricultural soil is a method that gives great efficiency, thanks to the continuous distribution of organic fertilizers in the agricultural soil.
For information: the use of immature organic fertilizers leads to adverse results that harm the plant.
Organic fertilizers, due to the fact that it provides real evidence of its many benefits to plants, and that it is safe for the environment (as long as it is used correctly), so fertilizer is a candidate for all Farm owners instead of chemical fertilizers.