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Organic Fertilizers and Their Importance To The Soil

Organic fertilizers mean adding organic matter to the ground or increasing its content. This organic matter is given to the soil after its complete decomposition and the nutrients it contains in a form suitable for absorption by the roots of trees, in addition to its effect on improving the physical and chemical properties of the soil. Organic matter is usually the products of the decomposition of organisms. Living plants, animals, or a mixture of the two.

Source of organic matter:
Organic matter is all plant and animal matter that originates in the soil to which it is added, regardless of the stages of decomposition to which it has reached. It includes the bodies of various animals, insects, their droppings, and microorganisms in the soil. The most important sources of organic matter in the soil can be summarized as follows:
1- Plant remains of leaves, stems and roots
2- Remains of microorganisms and microorganisms
3- Municipal organic fertilizer
4- Industrial organic fertilizer (crop waste and urban garbage)
5- Green manure
6- Slaughterhouse waste and sewage water

decomposition of organic matter:
The basic condition for the decomposition of organic matter in the soil is the availability of sufficient numbers of microorganisms and the availability of appropriate conditions for the growth and activity of these organisms. before plant roots.

What is the importance of organic fertilizers???
Organic fertilizers are added to plants and orchids to achieve the following purposes:
1- Improving the properties of the soil by dismantling the soil particles, especially the heavy ones, and improving its aeration so that air and water permeate it.
2- Increasing the ability of the soil to retain water, especially sandy lands.
3- Increasing soil fertility and increasing its cationic capacity.
4- Increasing the soil content of various nutrients. When the decomposition of organic matter is complete, the elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and some microelements) increase.
5- When the organic matter decomposes, it produces many organic acids and carbon dioxide, which dissolves in the ground solution, forming carbonic acid. These acids work to dissolve the nutrients present in the soil, especially (phosphorous, iron, zinc, manganese, and copper) and make it more capable of being absorbed by the roots of trees. .

Types of organic fertilizers:
Among the most important organic fertilizers that are used to fertilize plants and fruit trees are:
1- Municipal fertilizer: Municipal fertilizer is considered one of the most important organic fertilizers used, which works to improve the physical and chemical properties of the soil and is an important source for providing the soil with some microelements such as boron, copper and manganese. It is known that the chemical composition of municipal fertilizers is complex and varies according to the type of animal from which the fertilizer is taken. In addition to its age and method of feeding it, in addition to the method of collecting manure and its storage method, the content of municipal manure in terms of total nitrogen is low, not more than 0.5%, phosphorus 4.0% and potassium 2.1%, but in general it increases the percentage of organic matter in the soil.
2- Sebla: It is a special type of organic fertilizer that consists of animal dung and urine. It is widely used in fertilizing fruit trees. It is considered richer than municipal manure in its content of nutrients and organic matter. The percentage of total nitrogen in it is about 5.1%, phosphorus 1% and potassium 1. 1%.
3- Bird and poultry waste: It is considered one of the best types of organic fertilizers because it contains a high percentage of various nutrients, and the trees benefit from it is high. The percentage of total nitrogen in it ranges from about 2.1-4.2% and phosphorus 1.1-2.4%. And potassium 0.2 – 2.2%.
4- Dried blood: rapidly decomposed, rich in nitrogen (about 10%) and found in a form suitable for absorption by tree roots, but it contains low levels of phosphorus and potassium.
5- Cotton seed meal: It represents one of the outputs of cotton seed pressing and contains a high percentage of protein, fats, carbohydrates and various nutrients. The percentage of total nitrogen is about 7%, phosphorus 5.2% and potassium 2.1%.
6- Powder: prepared from drying human waste in special basins, the percentage of total nitrogen is about 8.1%, phosphorus 5.2% and potassium 6.0%.

The best way to add organic fertilizers:
Organic fertilizers are added to fruit orchards by dispersing them on the surface of the soil, then hoeing or plowing, to reduce the loss of nitrogen during the decomposition process, and to facilitate the spread of the active elements to the root area to facilitate their absorption by the trees. It was found that scattering organic matter around tree trunks and plowing them with soil is considered the best and most efficient way. This is due to the regular distribution of organic fertilizers, as the root system benefits from this addition efficiently.

The optimal time to add organic fertilizers:
Organic fertilizers are added to fruit orchards early during the winter and long before the season of growth and activity, because the organic matter takes a long time to decompose and become suitable and easy for absorption by the roots of trees at the beginning of the growing season in spring.

The needs of fruit trees for organic fertilizers:
The needs of fruit trees for organic fertilizers vary according to the type and age of the fruit. Usually about 2-3 hoppers of municipal fertilizer are added to each young tree (before it reaches flowering and fruiting), while about 3-8 hoppers of municipal fertilizer are added to each tree when it reaches the stage of flowering and fruiting.