Organic and Bio- Fertilizers
Organic fertilizers come from animal or vegetable sources, or a mixture of them. As for biological and biological fertilizers, they come from useful microorganisms loaded with organic materials, clay minerals, or seeds, and are in the form of solid or liquid materials. These fertilizers vary according to their source and nature and can be classified as follows:
1- Animal waste, including:
– Cow waste – Poultry waste – Horse, sheep and camel waste – Bird waste – Bone meal – Dried blood – Fish meal and liquid fish emulsion.
2- Plant waste, including:
– Crop residues after harvesting – Parts and leaves of trees and other plants – Vegetable plants that are grown and turned over in the ground, especially leguminous plants and others.
Importance of Organic Fertilizers:
Organic fertilizers play an important role in improving soil properties, as they, along with other soil components, form a good environment for plant growth, in addition to supplying the plant with nutrients, which leads to an increase in soil fertility, and thus an increase in production.
In general, organic fertilizers must be completely decomposed and have good specifications before being used in agriculture, and non-decomposed and untreated raw animal waste should not be used.
thermally Because it contains many pathogens, as well as weed seeds, thus becoming a source of pollution and the spread of diseases and insects. Accordingly, we affirm that animal waste is not used in its natural form (raw materials) except after subjecting it to microbial decomposition and heat treatment.
The role of organic fertilizers in improving soil productivity is through:
Improving the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil.
Increasing the ability of the soil to retain water and nutrients and increasing the efficiency of its use by plants.
Increasing the availability of nutrients added to the soil through mineral fertilizers.
It is considered a food source for microorganisms, which increases their activity and numbers in the soil.
Organic fertilizers have an active and direct role in increasing the fertility and productivity of the soil, and they have an important role in improving the properties of the soil, in addition to providing the plant with some important nutrients that the plant needs during its life period, and they are clean fertilizers that are not harmful to the environment, and have no harm to humans. Or animal or soil, provided that it is completely decomposed and thermally treated and free from pathogens and weed seeds, with the exception of fertilizers resulting from wastewater treatment.
Benefits of organic fertilizer:
Organic fertilizers have many benefits, including:
Supplying the plant with natural nutrients, some enzymes, amino and organic acids, polysaccharides, growth regulators, and other compounds that contribute to increasing production.
Increasing the efficiency of using mineral fertilizers. At the same time, it is possible to dispense with the use of mineral fertilizers if the organic fertilizers contain nutrients that meet the plant’s need. In all cases, the use of organic fertilizers leads to a reduction in the amount of mineral fertilizers used.
Increasing the exchange capacity of the soil ((CEC Cation exchange capacity), and thus considered a storehouse for preserving the nutrients ready for the plant and preserving them from loss through leaching, in addition to increasing the ability of the soil to retain water.
Preserving the thermal system of the soil, as it acts as a thermoregulator for the surroundings of the soil during high and low temperatures, thus creating conditions suitable for plant growth.
Maintaining the soil acidity (pH) within a range suitable for plant growth and nutrients availability and absorption by the plant.
Increase the number and effectiveness of soil microorganisms.
It works to encapsulate the nutrients, as they become in the form of colloidal complexes ready for absorption by the plant and not to be fixed in the soil.
It works to increase the dissolution of clay soil and the cohesion of sandy soil, and in both cases it improves the properties of the soil.
Soil stabilization and preservation from water and air erosion.
Specifications of good organic fertilizer:
Good fertilizer is subject to certain conditions and specifications that make it suitable for use and of high efficiency. Among these conditions and specifications are the following:
The compost must be heat-treated and completely decomposed, with no or little odor, black or dark brown color free of lumps.
It shall be free from pathogens, insects and weed seeds.
The fertilizer should be rich in organic matter.
The salinity of the fertilizer should not exceed 10 mmose/cm (unit of salinity) as an extract (5:1).
The pH value should not exceed 7.5 for an extract (5:1).
The carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) should not be more than 20.
Sodium chloride (NaCl) should not exceed 2%.
The importance of heat treatment during the production of organic fertilizer:
Compost composting and heat treatment ensure the following:
1- Get rid of weed seeds
2- Getting rid of nematodes
3 – Elimination of plant pathogens
4 – Raise the level of humus in the compost
5- The fertilizer elements are easy to use
6 – Production of useful substances in biological resistance to soil diseases
7- Producing natural materials that lead to improving the natural, chemical and biological properties of the soil.
* All these items lead to maximizing the economic and environmental returns of converting farm waste into organic fertilizer, through heat treatment in factories approved by the Ministry of Environment and Water.